Additional Resources


  • Adelantado – a military title given to some Spanish conquistadores that granted them the right to govern whatever territory they conquered on their expeditions as long as they funded and organized their own journey.
  • Advanced convoy – a group of people sent ahead of the main group to obtain intelligence about certain areas/territories and report back with what they learn.
  • Conquest – the act of taking control of a country or city through the use of force.
  • Conquistador – a leader in the Spanish conquests of America, Mexico, and Peru in the 16th century.
  • Contador – an accountant.
  • Entrada – an armed incursion of Spanish conquistadors into American territories.
  • Expedition – a journey or excursion taken for a specific purpose.
  • Hacienda – a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house.
  • Hidalgo – a member of the lowest noble class in Spain.
  • Hispaniola – an island in the Caribbean that was the first colony in the New World established by Spain. It is the Island occupied by the modern countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
  • La Florida – Spanish territory in what is now the southeastern United States during the colonization period.

Further Research

Early Spanish Exploration of North America

Schneider, Paul. Brutal Journey: The Epic Story of the First Crossing of North America. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC., 2006.

Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

Early Explorations

Duncan, David Ewing. Hernando de Soto: A Savage Quest in the Americas. Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

North American Journey

Clayton, Lawrence A., Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, eds. The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando De Soto To North America In 1539-1543. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1993.

Galloway, Patricia, ed. The Hernando de Soto Expedition: History, Historiography, and “Discovery” in the Southeast. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Hudson, Charles and Carmen Chaves Tesser, eds. The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1994.

Hudson, Charles, et. al. “Coosa: A Chiefdom in the Sixteenth-Century Southeastern United States.” American Antiquity 50, no. 4 (October 1985): 723-737.

Hudson, Joyce Rockwood. Looking for De Soto: A Search Through the South for the Spaniard’s Trail. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1993.

Nystrom, Elsa A. “Hernando de Soto in Georgia.” In The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia, 2005.

Swanton, John R. Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission. Classics of Smithsonian Anthropology. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Contact with Native Americans

Hudson, Charles. Knights of Spain, Warriors of the Sun: Hernando de Soto and the South’s Ancient Chiefdoms. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997.